Review of: Stars

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On 13.12.2020
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The goal was to reduce variations in star names and also spelling "Formalhaut", for example, had 30 recorded variations.

However, the long-standing name "Alpha Centauri" — referring to a famous star system with planets just four light years from Earth — was replaced with Rigel Kentaurus.

A star develops from a giant, slowly rotating cloud that is made up entirely or almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.

Due to its own gravitational pull, the cloud behind to collapse inward, and as it shrinks, it spins more and more quickly, with the outer parts becoming a disk while the innermost parts become a roughly spherical clump.

According to NASA, this collapsing material grows hotter and denser, forming a ball-shaped protostar. When the heat and pressure in the protostar reaches about 1.

Nuclear fusion converts a small amount of the mass of these atoms into extraordinary amounts of energy — for instance, 1 gram of mass converted entirely to energy would be equal to an explosion of roughly 22, tons of TNT.

The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.

The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.

An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.

After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.

The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence. After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.

This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant.

Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.

After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.

Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.

Our sun should leave the main sequence in about 5 billion years. A high-mass star forms and dies quickly. These stars form from protostars in just 10, to , years.

While on the main sequence, they are hot and blue, some 1, to 1 million times as luminous as the sun and are roughly 10 times wider. When they leave the main sequence, they become a bright red supergiant, and eventually become hot enough to fuse carbon into heavier elements.

After some 10, years of such fusion, the result is an iron core roughly 3, miles wide 6, km , and since any more fusion would consume energy instead of liberating it, the star is doomed, as its nuclear radiation can no longer resist the force of gravity.

When a star reaches a mass of more than 1. The result is a supernova. Gravity causes the core to collapse, making the core temperature rise to nearly 18 billion degrees F 10 billion degrees C , breaking the iron down into neutrons and neutrinos.

In about one second, the core shrinks to about six miles 10 km wide and rebounds just like a rubber ball that has been squeezed, sending a shock wave through the star that causes fusion to occur in the outlying layers.

The star then explodes in a so-called Type II supernova. If the remaining stellar core was less than roughly three solar masses large, it becomes a neutron star made up nearly entirely of neutrons, and rotating neutron stars that beam out detectable radio pulses are known as pulsars.

If the stellar core was larger than about three solar masses, no known force can support it against its own gravitational pull, and it collapses to form a black hole.

A low-mass star uses hydrogen fuel so sluggishly that they can shine as main-sequence stars for billion to 1 trillion years — since the universe is only about Still, astronomers calculate these stars, known as red dwarfs , will never fuse anything but hydrogen, which means they will never become red giants.

Instead, they should eventually just cool to become white dwarfs and then black dwarves. Although our solar system only has one star, most stars like our sun are not solitary, but are binaries where two stars orbit each other, or multiples involving even more stars.

In fact, just one-third of stars like our sun are single, while two-thirds are multiples — for instance, the closest neighbor to our solar system, Proxima Centauri , is part of a multiple system that also includes Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B.

Still, class G stars like our sun only make up some 7 percent of all stars we see — when it comes to systems in general, about 30 percent in our galaxy are multiple , while the rest are single, according to Charles J.

Lada of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Binary stars develop when two protostars form near each other. One member of this pair can influence its companion if they are close enough together, stripping away matter in a process called mass transfer.

If one of the members is a giant star that leaves behind a neutron star or a black hole, an X-ray binary can form, where matter pulled from the stellar remnant's companion can get extremely hot — more than 1 million F , C and emit X-rays.

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Create Ad. Create Page. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provided a likely explanation: the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and the surrounding gas causes episodic increases in brightness.

A star the size of our Sun requires about 50 million years to mature from the beginning of the collapse to adulthood.

Our Sun will stay in this mature phase on the main sequence as shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram for approximately 10 billion years.

Stars are fueled by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium deep in their interiors. The outflow of energy from the central regions of the star provides the pressure necessary to keep the star from collapsing under its own weight, and the energy by which it shines.

As shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Main Sequence stars span a wide range of luminosities and colors, and can be classified according to those characteristics.

Despite their diminutive nature, red dwarfs are by far the most numerous stars in the Universe and have lifespans of tens of billions of years.

On the other hand, the most massive stars, known as hypergiants, may be or more times more massive than the Sun, and have surface temperatures of more than 30, K.

Hypergiants emit hundreds of thousands of times more energy than the Sun, but have lifetimes of only a few million years. Although extreme stars such as these are believed to have been common in the early Universe, today they are extremely rare - the entire Milky Way galaxy contains only a handful of hypergiants.

In general, the larger a star, the shorter its life, although all but the most massive stars live for billions of years.

When a star has fused all the hydrogen in its core, nuclear reactions cease. Deprived of the energy production needed to support it, the core begins to collapse into itself and becomes much hotter.

Hydrogen is still available outside the core, so hydrogen fusion continues in a shell surrounding the core. The increasingly hot core also pushes the outer layers of the star outward, causing them to expand and cool, transforming the star into a red giant.

If the star is sufficiently massive, the collapsing core may become hot enough to support more exotic nuclear reactions that consume helium and produce a variety of heavier elements up to iron.

However, such reactions offer only a temporary reprieve. Gradually, the star's internal nuclear fires become increasingly unstable - sometimes burning furiously, other times dying down.

These variations cause the star to pulsate and throw off its outer layers, enshrouding itself in a cocoon of gas and dust. What happens next depends on the size of the core.

Universe Learn About This Image. Stars Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies.

Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes. The Big Bang.

Helpful Links Organization and Staff. Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Spacecraft Paper Models. Related Content Mysteries of the Sun.

Death of Stars video. Life Cycles of Stars. More About Stars. Stellar Evolution. Recommended Articles. July 14, Remembering Riccardo Giacconi, X-Ray December 11,

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